Single-reed woodwinds produce sound by placing a reed onto the opening of a mouthpiece; when air is forced between the reed and the mouthpiece, the reed causes the air column in the instrument to vibrate and produce its unique sound. Single reed instruments include the clarinet and others such as the chalumeau. Double-reed instruments use two cut, small pieces of cane bound together at the base; this form of sound production has been estimated to have originated in the middle to late Neolithic period.
The finished, bound reed is inserted into the instrument and vibrates as air is forced between the two pieces; this family of reed pipes is subdivided further into another two sub-families: exposed double reed, capped double reed instruments.
American march music
Exposed double-reed instruments are played by having the double reed directly between the player's lips; this family includes instruments such as the oboe , cor anglais and bassoon , many types of shawms throughout the world. On the other hand, Capped double-reed instruments have the double reed covered by a cap; the player blows through a hole in this cap that directs the air through the reeds. This family includes the crumhorn. Bagpipes are unique reed pipe instruments since they use two or more single reeds. However, bagpipes are functionally the same as a capped double reed instruments since the reeds are never in direct contact with player's lips.
Free reed aerophone instruments are unique since sound is produced by'free reeds' — small metal tongues arranged in rows within a metal or wooden frame; the airflow necessary for the instruments sound is generated either by a player's breath, or by bellows. The modern orchestra's woodwind section includes: flutes, oboes and bassoons; the piccolo , cor anglais, bass clarinet, E-flat clarinet, contrabassoon are used supplementary woodwind instruments.
The section may on occasion be expanded by the addition of saxophone; the concert band's woodwind section is much larger and more diverse than the orchestra's. Henry Fillmore Henry Fillmore was an American musician, composer and bandleader , best known for his many marches and screamers. Fillmore was born in Ohio , as the eldest of five children. In his youth he mastered piano , violin and slide trombone , he kept his trombone activities a secret at first, as his circumspect religious father James Henry Fillmore —a composer of gospel songs in collaboration with Jessie Brown Pounds —believed it an uncouth and sinful instrument.
Henry's mother secretly bought a used trombone for him and obscured, from Henry's father, the son's learning to play the instrument. Fillmore, whose relative Frederick Augustus Fillmore was a tune-composer for gospel songs, was a singer for his church choir as a boy, he began composing at 18, with his first published march " Hingham ", named after a line of brass instruments. Fillmore entered the Cincinnati Conservatory of Music in After graduating from the Cincinnati Conservatory of Music, Fillmore traveled the United States as a circus bandmaster with his wife, an exotic vaudeville dancer named Mabel May Jones.
They were married in St. In the s Fillmore was back in Cincinnati conducting the Shriners Temple Band, which he turned into one of the best marching bands in the country. In Fillmore, after being advised by a physician that he had just a few months to live, retired to Miami, Florida , he went on, however. So Fillmore kept an active schedule composing marches. Henry Fillmore Band Hall, the rehearsal hall for many of the University of Miami's performing groups, acquired its name as a tribute to Fillmore's work in the band genre, his march " Orange Bowl " was written for Miami's Band of the Hour.
His march "Men of Florida" was composed for the bands at the University of Florida , he was given an Honorary Doctorate of Music by the University of Miami in in recognition of his career. Fillmore lived out the rest of his days in South Florida. Only the name Will Huff caused any issues, as another Will Huff composed marches and resided in Fillmore's state.
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Fillmore used many pseudonyms throughout his career and was worried that flooding the market with music published under "Henry Fillmore" would dissuade others from purchasing his music, his pseudonyms are difficulty level, or genre. In a interview with Jack H. Mahan, Fillmore explained his pseudonym uses: "Harold Bennett" was easy and non-progressive, if you can play one, you can play them all. Solos under other names are just incidental.
While best known for march music and screamers, he wrote waltzes, hymns, novelty numbers, overtures. A number of these have a strong ragtime influence; the tunes have subtitles printed on the parts, some of which reflect social and racial realities of the time. Bierley, Paul E.. Columbus, Ohio : Integrity Press. ISBN Karl King Karl L. King was a United States march music bandmaster and composer, he is best known as the composer of " Barnum and Bailey's Favorite ". The King family moved to Canton, Ohio when he was eleven, the age he used newspaper carrier income to purchase his first musical instrument — a cornet , he studied with director of the Grand Army Band of Canton, on this instrument.
He grew up as a self-taught musician with little schooling of any kind, his only music instruction included assistance from local musicians when he played brass instruments in the Canton Marine Band. He had four piano lessons and one harmony lesson from musical show director William Bradford , he learned to compose by studying scores.
He soon switched to playing in and composing for bands, his first professional positions were in the Thayer Military Band in Canton, directed by William E. He switched from the cornet with Strassner instructing him on that instrument. In at the age of 19, he began a short career directing circus bands; that year, he joined.
The next year he was performing in the Yankee Robinson Circus band under Theo. In , he performed in the Sells-Floto Circus under W. English, in in the Barnum and Bailey band under Ned Brill. His first full-time conducting job was in through with the Sells Floto Circus and Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show combined shows band, he became bandmaster for the Sells-Floto Circus in and was bandmaster of the Barnum and Bailey Circus band — In his final band, he included his wife Ruth as the calliope performer, he had married Ruth November 17, In an interview in the last year of his life, King stated that his proudest moment was conducting the Barnum and Bailey band in Madison Square Garden.
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With no openings on his staff at the time, Sousa suggested King apply to the army as bandmaster at Camp Grant ; the war ended on his reporting date. King remained in Canton as director of the local band, he began a music publishing business, the K. King Music House in , the same year his only child Karl L. King, Jr. The first publication of his new music company was " Broadway One-Step". After a year in Canton where he directed the Grand Army Band King settled down in Iowa; this was in and for the next fifty-one years he conducted the Fort Dodge Municipal Band, which featured future American Bandmasters Association president Joseph Hermann on clarinet.
The band became known as King's Band. King was instrumental in the passage of the Iowa Band Law in , which allowed cities to levy a local tax for maintenance of a band. He commemorated this with one of his marches, "Iowa Band Law". In , King would direct "Iowa Band Law" with the largest mass band assembled: high school bands and nearly 13, musicians at a nationally televised University of Michigan football game, he was given a testimonial dinner for people in at the age of 59 where band world luminaries including Glenn Cliffe Bainum, Albert Austin Harding , Paul V. Yoder , William H. Santelmann attended.
King the composer published more than works: galops, overtures, rags, marches and screamers , it could be said. He seemed to like composing under pressure and composed in tight spots, his name appeared on the sheet music as Karl King, K.
King, sometimes Carl Lawrence. His first known composition still extant was composed for the Thayer Military Band while he was performing in it — titled "March T. His first copyrighted work was "Moonlight on the Nile Waltz ". King's marches for circus bands are composed at a high difficulty level American march music, he contributed to the school band movement with numerous compositions at various levels of difficulty.
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One of the most significant American band composers of the early 20th century, Goldman composed over works, but is best known for his marches, he founded the renowned Goldman Band of the American Bandmasters Association. He wrote singing and whistling into the score of "On the Mall". His father died in Terre Haute on December 18, , when Goldman was only eight years old, the following year and her four children, Mayer and Alfred, moved to New York City. Before her marriage, Goldman's mother was a professional pianist and part of the famous Franko Family, which made its debut at Steinway Hall in New York on September 17, In , after winning a scholarship, he attended the National Conservatory of Music , where he studied music theory and played trumpet in the Conservatory orchestra, he studied under master cornetist Jules Levy.
In he became a professional trumpet player, performing in such organizations as the Metropolitan Opera House orchestra alongside his uncle Nahan Franko , the orchestra's concertmaster and assistant conductor, he married Adelaide Maibrunn in The next year, he left the Metropolitan Opera orchestra and went to work for the publishing house Carl Fischer Music , where he remained for ten years. In the s the band performed three nights a week at the bandstand in Brooklyn's Prospect Park.
They were heard on many radio broadcasts. From to , Goldman moonlighted as the first professional "coach" of the bands at Columbia University, directing both the Columbia University Marching Band and the university's symphonic band. During their nearly 50 years of their marriage, Adelaide wrote lyrics for several of Goldman's more popular pieces. Goldman was known for his congenial personality and dedication to music, he was close to city officials and earned three honorary doctorates. For his contribution to the radio industry, Goldman has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at Hollywood Boulevard.
For over years, the band shell has been the home to the Allentown Band , of which Goldman was the first guest conductor in Alford being known by the former nickname. Sousa began his career playing violin and studying music theory and composition under John Esputa and George Felix Benkert, his father enlisted him in the United States Marine Band as an apprentice in After departing the band in , Sousa learned to conduct.
From until his death, he focused on conducting and the writing of music, he rejoined the Marine Band and served there for 12 years as director. On leaving the Marine Band, Sousa organized his own band. Sousa aided in the development of the sousaphone , a large brass instrument similar to the helicon and tuba. Following his tenure, he returned to conduct the Sousa Band until his death in John Philip Sousa was born in Washington, D.
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Sousa began his music education under the tuition of John Esputa Sr.. This was short-lived, due to the teacher's frequent bad temper, his real music education began in or as a pupil of John Esputa Jr. Esputa shared his father's bad temper, the relationship between teacher and pupil was strained, but Sousa nonetheless progressed rapidly under Esputa, was found to have perfect pitch, he wrote his first composition, "An Album Leaf", during this period but Esputa dismissed it as "bread and cheese" and the composition was subsequently lost.
When Sousa was 13, his father, a trombonist in the Marine Band, enlisted him in the United States Marine Corps as an apprentice to keep him from joining a circus band.